Infertility in Women
Fertility challenges can be emotionally trying, cause self-doubt, and strain relationships. At Reproductive Gynecology & Infertility, we offer a safe, comfortable, and compassionate space where you can talk about your struggles to conceive and receive highly effective customized treatment plans.
A couple who cannot become pregnant for a year or more is considered infertile. Infertility can be caused by either the female or male partner. Infertility triggered by issues with the female’s reproductive capability is called female factor infertility.
In approximately 33 percent of infertility cases, female factor infertility is the root cause. This means that conditions like ovulation problems, anatomical disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, uterine abnormalities, infection, or immunological issues are the contributing factors.
Signs of Infertility in Women
How does female infertility occur?
Several factors can cause female factor infertility.
- Ovulation abnormalities. This condition occurs when the woman does not generate enough hormones to produce and release healthy reproductive cells (eggs). The primary contributor to female infertility is ovulation dysfunction. The most common ovarian disorder is a condition known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Other ovulation issues include premature menopause, irregular menstruation, or hypothyroidism.
- Tubal abnormalities. An abnormality in the female reproductive system can inhibit fertilization. This might be caused by a blockage in the fallopian tube, infections in the pelvis, or endometriosis. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common pelvic infections, but they are not always symptomatic.
- Endometriosis. This condition increases the risk of infertility and occurs when the tissue within the uterus grows outside of it. This phenomenon can cause the development of scar tissue and an inflammatory response that inhibits proper organ function.
- Uterine abnormalities. There may be a connection between uterine defects and infertility or recurrent miscarriages. Occasionally, women have abnormally shaped uteruses from birth; a condition called a septate (divided) uterus. Growths might also appear in the uterine cavity. These include fibroids, polyps, or cysts that prevent embryos from implanting.
- Recurrent miscarriage. Recurrent miscarriage occurs when two or more pregnancies fail consecutively. There are numerous potential causes, although chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo are the most common cause. Recurrent pregnancy loss is associated with genetic abnormalities, persistent blood clotting, and compromised immunity. Before attempting another pregnancy, couples who have experienced recurrent miscarriages should have an assessment by a reproductive specialist.
- Infections. An infection of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, or the ovaries can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Infertility in Women: What are the Treatment Options?
There are numerous, highly effective treatment options for infertility in women. The most appropriate solution will depend upon the cause. Infertility treatments might include:
You should seek medical consultation as soon as possible if you are struggling with fertility issues or want to become pregnant in the near future. If you fail to carry a pregnancy after one year of trying and are under 35, you should have an evaluation. If you are over the age of 35, you should consult a specialist if you have failed to achieve pregnancy after six months of trying.